In May and June, we have posted the Thai consonants part 1 and part 2. We, therefore, continue to talk about Thai language focusing on Thai vowels in this post. The vowels in Thai language are monophthongs, diphthongs, triphthongs. However, in this post, we will focus on the monophthongs only. A monophthong in Thai language can be one or more than one forms. It will be easier to learn the vowel sound first and memorize the forms of each vowel together. The IPA vowel chart below shows short vowels by tongue’s position. Please click on each vowel in the chart below for pronunciation and please click here to learn more about the IPA.Thai monophthongs can be both short and long vowels. The table below shows the monophthongs [ S ], forms [ F ], sample words, and definitions [ Word ] by column order. The left section is the list of short monophthongs while the right section is the list of long monophthongs.

  SHORT LONG
  S. F. Word S. F. Word
1
/ i / มิ (neg.): no [ ii ] มี (v.): have
    คิด (v.): think     รีด (v.): iron
[ri] _ฤ_ อังกฤษ (n.): English      
2
[e] เ_ะ เละ (n.): mess [ee] เ_(_) เซ (v.): stagger
  เด็ก (n.): child     เณร (n.): novice
3
[ae] แ_ะ และ (conj.): and [aae] แ_(_) แม่ (n.): mother
  แข็ง (adj.): hard     แขน (n.): arm
4
/a/ _ะ พระ (n.): monk [aa] _า(_) ชา (n.): tea
  วัน (n.): day     วาด (v.): draw
[a(n)] _รร(_) สรร (v.) : choose      
    มรรค (n.): path      
[am] ทำ (v.): do      
5
[oa] เ_าะ เคาะ (v.): knock [ooa] _อ พ่อ (n.): father
  ก๊อก (n.): faucet   ก็ ก็ (conj.):
            as a result
6
[o] โ_ะ โต๊ะ (n.): table [oo] โ_ โง่ (adj.): stupid
  _ _ คม (adj.): sharp      
7
[u] ดุ (adj.): fierce [uu] ปู (n.): crab
      จุด (n.): dot      
8
/ue/ ดึก (adj.): late /uue/ ลืม (v.): forget
[rue] ฤดู (n.): season [ruue] ฤๅ ฤๅษี (n.): hermit
[lue] — no word — [luue] ฦา ฦาสาย (n.):
            a word to call a king
9
[oe] เ_อะ เยอะ (adj.,adv.): [ooe] เ_อ เธอ (pron.): you
    many,much   เดิน (v.): walk
        ฤกษ์ (n.):
            auspicious time

Note:
“S.” column: Vowel Sound
“F.” column: Vowel Form
“Word” column: vocab and meaning
_: the consonant position (mostly can be any consonants)
(_): optional consonant

_ฤ_, ฤ, ฤๅ, ฦ, ฦา :

We consider these forms as consonants but we would like to show the possibilities of the monophthongs “[ i ], [ ue ], [ uue ], and [ ooe ]” can appear in words.
1: Today, the [am] sound of some word is pronounced as long vowel such as “น้ำ”.
2: Today, some word with the “[ooe]” vowel sound is pronounced as a short vowel such as “เงิน”.

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Thai 44 Alphabets Writing Practice Book
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Thai Consonants, Vowels & Tones Learning Chart $2.45